As the struggle with ISIS enters its final stages, the unavoidable question is "What comes next?" The only way for the Middle East to avoid becoming the battlefield for a “Thirty Years War” of endless sectarian conflict is for a new Liberal order to emerge based on the separation of Church and State, the celebration of ethnic and sectarian diversity, strong civil liberties and the democratic accountability between rulers and ruled. This was the original impulse behind “The Arab Spring” in 2011. Should the Trump administration pursue this goal? Will he face opposition from our traditional allies, the authoritarian and sectarian regimes of Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Egypt and even Jordan. Also, how do tens of millions brutalized by war learn to live with their recent enemies?