The Industrial Revolution resulted in a growing middle class and a fabulously wealthy, newly arrived upper class, but not everyone benefited from these changes. The poor were sequestered in workhouses in Great Britain and poorhouses in the United States. Women who dared to be independent could be sent by male relatives to prisons, mental institutions or church-run asylums such as the Magdalene laundries. To counter such thinking, reformers, such as Florence Nightingale, and William Booth, the founder of the Salvation Army, advocated for those in the shadows. If you left the movie, Philomena, with unanswered questions, if you've heard the expression, "spending your way to the poorhouse," or if you’ve ever dropped change in the Salvation Army bucket, join us and learn about these alternatives to the workhouse. This class is a sequel to, "In the Shadow of the Workhouse."