We'll examine the permanent effects of the French Revolution in the nineteenth century, seeing them through the development of Paris. The Restoration of the Bourbon Monarchy introduced a politically clumsy time when Old Regime forms collided with the laws, institutions, and aspirations of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic periods. That regime collapsed in another revolution and its successor provided equally horrible leadership that ended in the Revolution of 1848 and the brief installation of a republic which itself failed and was replaced by a new imperial system. Through all of these political misadventures, Paris grew as a dominant center for art, literature, music and philosophy, and these topics will be the dominant subjects of the lectures. Realism and Impressionism dominated art, Balzac, Sand, and Zola led in literature, and Tocqueville represented the solid theorectical base of French intellectual life, and the list of leaders in music and opera was long and all had enduring consequences.