To be Jewish in Europe during World War II and to have a chance for survival depended largely on the country where you lived. In the Netherlands, 70% of the Jewish population died. Were the Dutch especially anti-Semitic? Not at all, but they are a very organized people. When the Germans invaded, very complete census records already existed for Jews detailing the addresses, occupations, schools, and names of family members. On the other end of the spectrum, the Danes surrendered in six hours with one proviso so that the Jews in Denmark would continue to live normal lives free from persecution. By contrast, over 99% of Denmark's Jewish population survived the Holocaust. How did this come to be? Between the two polar opposites of the Netherlands and Denmark was the Vichy government of France, which gleefully handed its Jews to the Germans. Why was the attitude so different from country to country, and what were the roots of European anti-Semitism that coalesced in World War II?