Southwest France has witnessed marvels and horrors. Marvels: 20,000 years ago it hosted Paleolithic artists making their exquisite cave paintings. Greeks and Romans left their cultural signs. Carcassonne is the walled medieval town perhaps saved by a Saracen woman against Charlemagne’s siege. Black Madonna statues and Magdalene legends exist in Languedoc. Horrors: in the 1200s, the Cathars were genocide victims during a Catholic crusade led by the French king and Pope Innocent III. During the Spanish civil war, thousands of refugees fled over the Pyrenees. In the 1940s, Languedoc partisans resisted Nazi occupation by all possible means. Let’s determine if the marvels outweigh the horrors.